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This report was one in a series of pedestrian safety synthesis reports prepared for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to document pedestrian safety in other countries. Australia is a federation of States and Territories, and government responsibilities broadly mirror that in the USA. Local government is responsible for 80 percent of the road network, though the less heavily traveled parts. Australia is highly urbanized (notwithstanding large tracts of sparsely populated land). Almost 40% of the population lives in Melbourne or Sydney, and another 20% in Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. Australia has been a pioneer of traffic calming in the form of Local Area Traffic Management, particularly in residential neighborhoods. Innovations are evident in the traffic signal area. Puffin crossings with infrared detectors seem promising. Pelican crossings are likely to find ready application, and having them set up for double cycle operations appears to offer benefits. Australia was particularly innovative in developing the "safe routes to school" program, which integrates education, route selection, and engineering treatments to increase pupil safety. Also in development is the "walk with care" program designed for the elderly.