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"Hardship to Homeland" recounts Volga Germans' unique story in a saga that stretches from Germany to Russia and across the Atlantic. In 1763, Russian empress Catherine II invited Europeans to immigrate. Colonists became Russian citizens, yet kept their language and culture, founding 104 Volga River communities. By 1871, facing poor economic conditions and an army draft, 100,000 Volga Germans poured into the New World, eventually spreading throughout the Pacific Northwest and influencing agriculture, religion, politics, and social development in their new homeland. First published as "The Volga Germans" in 1985, this revised and expanded edition offers a new introduction and collection of folk stories illustrated by Jim Gerlitz.